Functionalism arose in Germany in the 1920s in the depths of the Bauhaus architectural school and is still inseparably associated with this name. In France, the principles of functionality were developed by Le Corbusier, whose name is primarily associated with functionalism. The house, according to Le Corbusier, is a "car for living", in it a person should be as comfortable as possible.
Functionalism as a style was not immediately formed, but it largely determined the appearance of urban architecture and the interiors of multi-apartment "hives", where expediency becomes the main goal. The basic principle of this style: the purpose is higher than the external appearance, where the house is not a luxury, but the most functional place for human life.
The main idea of this style is "form is determined by function". This interior style is on the border between minimalism and high-tech style. Luxury and aesthetics rarely accompany such an interior style as functionalism.
The main thing in functionalism is not the beauty of the interior, but its convenience for a person. It is designed for those who want comfortable living conditions in a relatively small space of their apartment.
This style is a universal choice for those who are not interested in intricate decor, excesses and ostentatious luxury, but where moderation and convenience are felt in everything, from the layout, where you do not need to cross long corridors, to the absence of "unnecessary" decor items in the interior. Here standardization is opposed to individualism, and functionality excludes the sophistication of form.
In the layout, the idea of a continuous space was embodied, where one room flows into another without transitions, with a minimum amount of furnishings, and all small items are hidden in built-in wardrobes and shelves.
Furniture in functionalism should be simple and multifunctional: an armchair-bed, a sofa-bed, a corner sofa, beds moving out of cabinets or out of walls, a folding table, a table-book, folding tables, etc. It can be made of simple and durable materials: wood, metal. As a rule, such furniture has shapes that repeat the proportions of the human body, or it is just upholstered furniture, easy to use, simple geometric shapes. The upholstery is also made from simple and durable materials.
It is better not to use accessories at all or to use simple standard objects: glass or plastic vases, or paintings with geometric patterns, mirrors are also widely used to create perspective and enlarge the space.
All interior details are functional, there is no room for ordinary decorations. Open spaces are zoned with mobile partitions, the layout is free. Built-in niches and backlights are widely used. A geometric pattern or smoothly painted surfaces is characteristic, sometimes the material of the walls is not hidden, concrete or brick becomes design elements.
Functionalism is the primary concern for the foundations of life - light, air, heat, communications, square meters of personal and living space, rational planning and compliance with hygiene standards. In the standard layout, the interior performs a secondary function, and the inner feeling and psychological atmosphere of the home is slightly leveled. An abundance of light and air comes to the fore - wide windows with a minimum of partitions, without bars and stained-glass windows, which can be easily opened for ventilation. There is no place for complex and multi-layered curtains, neat blinds are acceptable, although light tulle and thick simple curtains will also work.
In the interior design, mainly cold tones are used, preference is given to white, which creates a feeling of spaciousness and conserves sunlight, it is possible to use bright, for example, red or green, color accents.
The rationality of functionalism, contrary to popular belief about the monotony of this style, allows you to create not only a comfortable for a person, but also an aesthetically attractive and original modern interior. Functionalism is ideal for a business person; this style is preferred by energetic, active people who value their time and are open to everything new and unusual.
The continuation of the review on interior styles follows ...
An article from the Book "Interior Styles with Tatiana Antonchenko" - a large encyclopedia of interior and architectural styles.